Solitary Confinement

Imagine living in a space the size of a bathroom, for months or years, without the ability to leave or go outside for 23 or 24 hours a day. The sensory deprivation, lack of normal human interaction, and extreme idleness imposed by such conditions can lead to intense suffering and severe psychological debilitation, even in healthy, well-functioning adults. For people suffering from mental illness, the consequences can be even more devastating.

Whether called disciplinary segregation, special housing units (“SHU”), supermaxes, the hole, or the box, isolated confinement is a common practice in prisons across the country. Although some states have significantly reduced the use of isolation in recent years, New York continues to impose disciplinary confinement at rates more than double the national average.

Isolation is routinely used, not primarily to address chronically violent behavior or serious security or safety concerns, but often in response to non-violent or relatively minor prison rule violations, or even as retaliation for questioning authority, talking back to an officer, or filing grievances. Moreover, people often continue to accumulate SHU time while in disciplinary confinement, resulting in long-term isolation, sometimes lasting a decade or more.

Since its inception and particularly in recent decades, the CA has reported on the use and conditions of solitary confinement, advocating for more humane alternatives. The CA believes that rather than using ineffective and inhumane punitive responses to rule violations, facilities should instead provide treatment and programs that address the underlying causes of individual behavior, such as substance abuse or mental illness. The CA’s investigations into the conditions of isolation in New York prisons inform its collaboration with coalitions comprised of families of those subjected to isolation, their communities, and other advocates to limit and reform the use of disciplinary confinement.

For example, after years of in-depth reporting, and advocacy as a member of Mental Health Alternatives to Solitary Confinement Coalition (MHASC), the CA was instrumental in the passage of the “SHU Exclusion Law,” which took effect in 2011 and requires that people with severe mental illness be diverted from isolation to special residential mental health treatment units. The CA continues to push for drastic reductions in the use and length of isolation for all people, improved conditions of confinement, and alternative responses, treatment, and programs.




News | December 19, 2014

CA Testifies Before NYC Correction Board to Oppose New Rule Establishing Enhanced Supervision Housing (ESH) Units

In testimony presented at a public hearing on proposed rule making by the NYC Board of Correction (BOC), the CA strongly expressed its opposition to the establishment of Enhanced Supervision Housing (ESH) units in its jails. The CA also called for an end to solitary confinement for everyone incarcerated in NYC and New York State jails and prisons, responding to recent reports that NYC will end such treatment for 16- and 17-year olds only.Read More

News | December 5, 2014

CA Responds to Grand Juries’ Failure to Indict Officers in Garner and Brown Killings

The outrage expressed following the recent refusals of grand juries in Ferguson and Staten Island to indict the cops who murdered Michael Brown and Eric Garner is not surprising. The fact that no indictments were issued is similarly not surprising. The grand jury results signal, once again, the undeniable flaws in the so-called criminal justice system and the racism that flows throughout it. It is this same racism that created an actual debate about the unconstitutional stop and frisk practices of the NYPD.Read More

News | November 13, 2014

CA Demands Better Care for People with Mental Health Needs in the State Prison System

The Correctional Association of NY testified on November 13 before the New York State Assembly’s Committees on Correction and Mental Health, demanding state officials to improve care for people with mental health needs. Based on the CA’s unique statutory authority to visit New York’s prisons and its advocacy on behalf of people with mental health needs, the CA provided comprehensive testimony about the barriers to quality prison mental health care and recommendations for fundamental change.Read More

News | November 7, 2014

CA Participates in Review of U.S. Human Rights Record

On November 12 and 13,  a committee of human rights experts at the United Nations will convene a formal review of the United States’ record on torture. Taking place in Geneva, Switzerland, the review will look at whether the federal government is sufficiently living up to the Convention Against Torture (CAT), a global treaty that outlines specific measures for governments to take in preventing torture or any type of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.Read More

News | October 31, 2014

The Greene Correctional Facility Report

Greene C.F. has one of the highest concentrations of young people in any New York State prison, and also some of the highest reported allegations of staff violence, harassment, and intimidation against incarcerated persons. The Correctional Association of New York (CA) Prison Visiting Project (PVP) visited Greene C.F. on November 8 and 9, 2012, and received updated information about Greene from incarcerated persons and staff in 2014.Read More

News | October 21, 2014

CA Testimony before New York Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

Last month the Prison Visiting Project (PVP) testified before the NY Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights regarding New York’s prison system and the fundamental reforms needed to end the torture of solitary confinement for incarcerated youth and all people. As a follow-up to that meeting, PVP Associate Director Scott Paltrowitz prepared written testimony further underscoring the urgent concerns raised during the July meeting – including the four key aspects of reform that the CA would like to see the Advisory Committee explore and consider in issuing its own recommendations.Read More

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News | October 19, 2014

The Clinton Correctional Facility Report

Clinton Correctional Facility has an infamous history of staff violence, brutality, dehumanization and racist attitudes that are an affront to any sense of humanity. The Correctional Association (CA) visited Clinton in July 2012, received more than 600 surveys from people incarcerated at Clinton, and obtained updated information about conditions at Clinton in 2014.Read More

News | October 4, 2013

Working to end torture in New York

PHOTO: Tyrrell Muhammad sitting with hands folded on panel.

At any given moment in New York’s prisons, more than 4,000 men, women, and children are held in solitary confinement. Another 1,000 people are in solitary in New York City jails. CA staff members Scott Paltrowitz and Tyrrell Muhammad are leading our efforts to end what the United Nations calls torture — solitary confinement.Read More

News | August 1, 2013

In support of the California hunger strike

Solitary is torture

The Correctional Association stands in solidarity with and supports the leadership of the 30,000 people incarcerated in Pelican Bay and other California prisons.Read More

News | July 31, 2013

Wednesday, July 31: NYC rally to end solitary confinement

Come stand in support of the thousands on hunger strike in Pelican Bay and other California prisons and to end the torture of solitary confinement in New York's own prisons and jails.Read More

CA in the Press | January 27, 2015

American Death Camps

Inmates are dying inside U.S. prisons and virtually no one is held accountable Darryl Rainey, 50, had one month remaining on his two-year sentence for cocaine possession without the intent to sell. He was also battling mental illness and served his time in a Florida prison’s psychiatric ward. One night Mr.Read More

Press Release | January 19, 2015

CA applauds Cuomo’s youth commission reform recommendations, hails commitment to youth justice

(New York, NY) January 19, 2015 – The Correctional Association of New York (CA), the state’s oldest criminal justice reform organization, released the following statement in response to the recommendations issued today by the Governor’s Commission on Youth, Public Safety and Justice: The CA congratulates and thanks the Commission for its outstanding and courageous hard work.Read More

CA in the Press | December 18, 2014

End Solitary Confinement for All, Not Some

In response to an opinion piece in the New York Times calling for an end to solitary confinement of teenagers, CA Executive Director Soffiyah Elijah warns against feel-good gestures that ultimately do not address the entire scope of human suffering  and abuse that is a result of solitary confinement across all incarcerated populations.Read More

CA in the Press | November 14, 2014

NY lawmakers probe care for mentally ill inmates

ALBANY, N.Y. (AP) — The head of the troubled New York City jail system said Thursday it's critical to send mentally ill inmates to treatment programs instead of a lockup.Read More

CA in the Press | November 11, 2014

A tough cell: US to defend solitary confinement use before UN

NEWARK, N.J. — In a small, brightly lit office in Newark, Ojore Lutalo lays out sheet after sheet of paper covered in disquieting words and images — collages made from photographs and cutouts from magazines pasted alongside the text of legal documents and blueprints and Lutalo’s words. They are the product of his incarceration for nearly 30 years in a New Jersey prison, 22 of them in solitary confinement.Read More

CA in the Press | October 11, 2014

“Freeing Youths from Solitary Isn’t Enough”

In response to the recent New York City Department of Corrections (NYDOCS) announcement that they would end the placement in solitary confinement of 16- and 17-year olds jailed at Rikers Island, Angelo Pinto, Campaign Manager of the Raise the Age Campaign of the CA’s Juvenile Justice Project, penned a powerful opinion piece in The Crime Report.Read More

CA in the Press | August 30, 2014

“No one is solely the worst thing they have ever done.”

This week The Epoch Times takes a powerful look at New York’s juvenile corrections system, shedding further light on the harsh and often dehumanizing conditions experienced by many of the state’s incarcerated youth.Read More

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CA in the Press | July 2, 2014

“Razor wire is the new red, white and blue.”

A quote from Tamar Kraft-Stolar, Director of the CA's Women in Prison Project, interviewed in this Nation Magazine piece examining the chances of OITNB's long term impact on policy reform for incarcerated women.Read More

CA in the Press | February 5, 2014

Reforming solitary confinement with proposed Assembly bill

On Saturday, Jan. 31, a group of concerned activists met at the Ithaca Friends Meeting House on Third Street to discuss this and other problems associated with the use of solitary confinement in New York’s prisons and jails. Read More

Press Release | January 29, 2014

NY Lawmakers, Advocates, and Survivors of Solitary Confinement Join to Announce Introduction of New Bill to Limit Use of Solitary in Prisons and Jails

Just introduced in the New York State Assembly (A08588) and Senate (S06466), the Humane Alternatives to Long-Term (HALT) Solitary Confinement Act. is being hailed by supporters as the most comprehensive and progressive legislative response to date to the nationwide problem of solitary confinement in prisons and jails. Read More

Prison Monitoring Reports

Attica State Prison

Attica Correctional Facility, a 2,000-bed maximum security prison in western New York, continues to operate as a symbolic and real epicenter of state violence and abuse of incarcerated persons in the Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) state prison system 43 years after the 1971 prison uprising and violent suppression by state authorities. Read More

Prison Monitoring Reports

Greene Correctional Facility

Greene C.F. has one of the highest concentrations of young people in any New York State prison, and also some of the highest reported allegations of staff violence, harassment, and intimidation against incarcerated persons. The Correctional Association of New York (CA) Prison Visiting Project (PVP) visited Greene C.F. on November 8 and 9, 2012, and received updated information about Greene from incarcerated persons and staff in 2014.Read More

Prison Monitoring Reports

Auburn Correctional Facility

Auburn was the first prison to implement the “Auburn System,” a system of incarceration in which incarcerated people worked in groups during the day, were housed in solitary cells during the night, and lived in enforced silence. Today, Auburn Correctional Facility operates as a maximum security, DOCCS-operated prison for men ages 21 and older.Read More


Reassessing Solitary Confinement


In June of 2012, the Correctional Association submitted written testimony to the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Human Rights about New York State’s use of solitary confinement. Read More

Organizational Materials

CA Bulletin: Fall 2011

In this issue; Gov. Cuomo announces prison closures; Reflecting back at the 40th anniversary of the Attica rebellion; CA calls for the closure of notorious prisonRead More

Fact Sheets

Substance Abuse Treatment in New York Prisons

Effective in-prison treatment programs go beyond the recovery of individual participants to enhance the quality of life within a prison and improve public health and safety outside its walls.Read More

Organizational Materials

CA Bulletin: Spring 2008

In this issue; Prison report on healthcare; Laura Davidson honored; WIPP premieres "Strength of a Woman"Read More

Fact Sheets

States that Provide Mental Health Alternatives to Solitary Confinement

Throughout the country, a growing number of states now prohibit housing inmates with mental illness in solitary confinement. Read More

Reports & Research

Addressing Key Criminal Justice Issues in the 21st Century

This special report presents some of the Correctional Association's top reform proposals for the state's administration to consider, as well as the benefits they could provide for both the communities most heavily impacted by incarceration and for society as a whole.Read More


Testimony on Mental Illness and SHUs

Testimony by Jennifer Wynn, Director, Prison Visiting Project At the Correctional Association of New York on Special Housing Units before the Corrections Committees of the New York State Assembly. Ms. Wynn addresses today the dire need for more humane housing and treatment for the nearly 1,000 inmates with mental illness who are currently confined in 23-hour disciplinary lockdown in New York State prisons. Her testimony is based on findings from a recently completed two-year research study that examined the quality of mental health care in New York prisons and involved site visits to 23 correctional facilities by project staff and outside psychiatrists.Read More

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